Waste to Energy

Waste to Energy Technologies: An Overview

The rapid urbanization and population growth of the 21st century have generated a staggering amount of waste, posing a significant challenge to cities worldwide. Repurposing the City isn’t only about finding new use for the structures of the city, but all urban resources. Recent advancements in waste to energy (WtE) technologies have offered a promising solution for repurposing waste into energy, providing a sustainable and efficient means of managing waste while also generating valuable energy. 

Waste to Energy (WtE) technologies involve the conversion of waste materials into electricity, heat, or fuels through various processes such as incineration, gasification, and anaerobic digestion. It is another example of how to mine the city for beneficial use. These technologies can be applied to different waste types, including municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural waste, and industrial waste.


Incineration is a widely used Waste to Energy technology that involves burning waste at high temperatures to produce steam, which is then used to generate electricity. This process significantly reduces the volume of waste while also recovering energy from the waste material (European Commission, 2017).

Amager Bakke Waste to Energy Plant
Amager Bakke Waste to Energy Plant

A notable example of an incineration facility is the Amager Bakke Waste to Energy Plant in Copenhagen, Denmark. This state-of-the-art facility processes over 400,000 tons of waste annually, generating electricity for 550,000 residents and providing district heating for 140,000 households (Copenhill, 2020).


Gasification is a thermochemical process that converts waste into a synthetic gas (syngas) comprising carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and other hydrocarbons. The syngas can be further processed into electricity, heat, or transportation fuels (US Department of Energy, 2020).

One example of a gasification facility is the Fulcrum BioEnergy’s Sierra BioFuels Plant in Nevada, USA. The plant is designed to process 175,000 tons of municipal solid waste per year, producing 10.5 million gallons of low-carbon transportation fuels (Fulcrum BioEnergy, 2021).

Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic digestion is a biological process in which microorganisms break down organic waste materials in the absence of oxygen, producing biogas, which primarily consists of methane and carbon dioxide. The biogas can be used to generate electricity, heat, or be upgraded to biomethane for use as a vehicle fuel or in natural gas grids (Scarlat et al., 2018).

The East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) in Oakland, California, is an example of a successful anaerobic digestion facility. The plant converts food waste and wastewater into biogas, which is then used to generate electricity for the facility’s operations (EBMUD, 2020).

Benefits of Waste to Energy Technologies

Waste Reduction

Waste to Energy technologies can significantly reduce waste volumes, which in turn, alleviates the pressure on landfills and the environment. Incineration, for example, can reduce waste volume by up to 90% (European Commission, 2017).

Energy Generation

WtE technologies can generate electricity, heat, and fuels from waste materials, contributing to a more sustainable and diverse energy mix. This reduces reliance on fossil fuels and supports the transition towards renewable energy sources (Arena, 2012).

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction

By diverting waste from landfills, Waste to Energy technologies help reduce methane emissions – a potent greenhouse gas. Additionally, the energy generated from waste can displace fossil fuel-based electricity, further reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

While WtE technologies have many potential benefits, there are also some concerns that need to be addressed. One concern is the potential for air pollution from the combustion of waste. However, modern WtE technologies have advanced pollution control systems in place, which can help to mitigate these concerns. For example, the plant in Copenhagen has a flue gas treatment system that removes pollutants before the gas is released into the atmosphere.

Another concern is the potential for toxic residue from the combustion process. However, this can be managed through proper waste management and disposal practices. In Singapore, for example, the toxic residue is treated and disposed of in a specially designed landfill, which is lined with impermeable materials to prevent contamination of the surrounding environment.

Waste to Energy technologies have the potential to transform the way we manage waste and generate energy. While there are concerns that need to be addressed, the benefits of WtE are significant, particularly in the context of a growing demand for energy and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Cities around the world can learn from the examples set by Copenhagen and Singapore and explore the potential of WtE technologies in their own waste management systems.